Adapting to climate change: A risk assessment and decision making framework for managing groundwater dependent ecosystems with declining water levels. Supporting document 1: Literature review
This literature review provides the basis to develop and test a risk assessment and decision-making tool for managing groundwater dependent wetlands and caves affected by climate change and other stressors. A standard risk assessment framework (Asante-Duah, 1998) is used to capture the state of our understanding of the scope of a drying climate (Section 1 - 'Hazard') and its likely distribution and level of impact on groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) across Australia and internationally (Section 2 - 'Exposure and vulnerability'). The effect this will have on the ecosystem function and biota is considered in Section 3 - 'Effects assessment'. Section 4 ('Thresholds and levels of acceptable change') investigates the types of responses to perturbation as outlined by ecological models of disturbance, and seeks to evaluate appropriate models for this risk assessment and justify levels of unacceptable change. Appropriate tools for a risk assessment and decision-making framework of this type are outlined in Section 5 ('Risk assessment tools'). The resources available on GDEs across Australia is considered in Section 6 - 'Current GDE information/toolboxes'. Finally, appropriate ways of incorporating future climate change in management are dealt with in Section 7 - 'Adaptation'.
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