Modeling Climate Change Impacts of Pavement Production and Construction

The 21st century is the century of urbanization. Along with rapid urbanization, the century is observing the biggest increase in the world's population in human history. As of 2006, the world human population reached 6.5 billion. Rapid global urbanization and explosive overall population increases generate high demand for new road networks. Paved surfaces can comprise up to 45% of land cover in urban regions of the United States and are designed with energy intensive products comprised of either Portland cement or petroleum-based asphalt (bitumen).